What are cataracts? Symptoms, causes and treatments

Cataracts are a very frequent ocular pathology and have a solution. We talk about the symptoms and their treatment based on the information from the Ocular Microsurgery Institute, made up of a highly qualified medical team that has been working eye pathologies for 25 years. Today we answer one of the big questions: What are cataracts ? Symptoms , causes and treatments


What are cataracts?

It is very likely that you have ever heard about cataracts, but could you say what are cataracts ? It is an ocular pathology that is common in older people.

Cataract is the loss of transparency of the lens , considered as the natural lens of the eye and is through from this lens through which the rays of light pass to the retina that allows the images to conform. Therefore, when we say that the lens loses transparency, this means that the patient is losing vision progressively .

What are cataracts? Symptoms, causes and treatments

Currently, it is established that there are three types of cataracts with different severity :

  • Cataract
    • Cataract strong> - It is the cataract that develops in the back part of the lens. It is common in people suffering from diabetes or taking drugs with high steroid load, because in both cases the risk of developing this type of cataract is multiplied.
    • Nuclear cataract - Is the cataract that affects the nucleus of the lens. It is the canonical cataract, which is caused by aging and the degeneration of vision.
    • Cortical cataract - It is the cataract that can be seen with the naked eye. The reason is that in the eye appear a white opacities that develop on the outside of the lens, to reach the nucleus. The cortical cataract affects the lens cortex, the area around the perimeter of the nucleus.

    Why cataracts occur?

    Although there are exceptional cases in which cataracts have appeared at an early age, as a rule these are usually caused by aging as the main cause. In fact, eight out of ten cases are conditioned and related to age. The mechanism is oxidized and the lens loses elasticity and focusing properties.

    What are cataracts? Symptoms, causes and treatments

    Other possible causes that can lead to a progressive loss of vision due to the opacity of the lens would be conditioning genetic , traumatisms , diseases ocular or organism (such as diabetes) or consumption of certain drugs , such as corticosteroids . For this reason, cataracts, although they are associated with older people, can affect people of any age.

    On the IMO website you can find more information about all types of pathologies, prevention and eye treatments. that can be very useful for your health.

    Symptoms of the cataracts

    What are the symptoms of the cataracts ? The main symptom and the most detectable is the sensation of loss of vision . One strives to see but does not succeed.The sooner the better. The problem is that the loss of vision of this disease is gradual , and if it is not caught in time, it has irreversible consequences. For this reason, although there are many patients who adapt to it without knowing it, it is advisable to have a ocular revision a year . For prevention.

    Causes of cataracts

    Once we know the symptoms, it is time to know what the causes of the falls . In this case, the lens is composed of water and proteins, the vast majority. It is precisely these proteins that, placed almost perfectly, regulate the entry of light into the eye. In addition, they control the entry of elements other than the eye.

    What are cataracts? Symptoms, causes and treatments

    Over time, these proteins they begin to accumulate, causing a permanent haze in the lens area . Obviously, that condition goes further, making the vision more and more complicated. As we have already mentioned, age is the most determining factor among the causes of cataracts. However, he is not the only one. The causes of cataracts are determined by numerous risk factors :

    • Diabetes
    • Hypertension
    • Smoking
    • Ultraviolet rays
    • High myopia
    • Genetics
    • Alcoholism
    • Eye surgery
    • Eye inflammations
    • Corticosteroid medication
    • Obesity
    • Statin medication (to reduce cholesterol)
    • Hormone replacement therapy
    What are cataracts? Symptoms, causes and treatments

    On the other hand, elements that may delay the onset of cataracts have also been studied

    strong>. Thus, a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, helps prevent, above all, the subcapsular cataract.

    Treatments against cataracts

    Finally, we review the treatments against cataracts . Treatments that are varied but with different effectiveness. That said, these are the most common treatments against cataracts.

    • Glasses - Cataracts can be corrected, at least temporarily, with glasses. Of course, they must be bifocal, with specific lighting and, obviously, have a high price.
    • Eye Surgery - Specialists recommend not going through the operating room, until the cataracts involve an impediment to the day to day. However, its high degree of effectiveness means that more and more people are opting for eye surgery against cataracts. Regardless of age, the improvement is considerable. In addition, it is an ambulatory, simple, painless intervention that can restore vision, almost 100% to the patient. Not in vain, it is one of the most practical surgeries in the world.
    What are cataracts? Symptoms, causes and treatments

    The statistics speak of a 90% of high success cases . That is, those who not only recover their sight, but who do it at a better level than they expected. For those who want details, the eye surgery of the cataract consists of removing the cloudy lens and replacing it with a plastic intraocular lens . The operation usually does not take more than 10 minutes in each eye.

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